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   Collective Annotated Bibliography


Alger, Horatio. From Ragged Dick. In Negotiating Difference. Eds. Patricia Bizzell and Bruce Herzberg. Boston: Bedford, 1996. 426-449.

Horatio Alger was a minister for two years. He was a big proponent of the Gospel of Wealth. He believed that if someone worked hard and honestly, he or she would become rich. Ragged Dick is about such a person. I chose this passage to be an argument against my thesis: It was indeed a bright prospect for a boy who, only a year before, could neither read nor write, and depended for a night's lodging upon the chance hospitality of an alleyway or old wagon. Dick's great ambition to "grow up spectable" seemed likely to be accomplished after all . . . (449). This passage speaks of what happened as a result of Ragged Dick's hard work.

Brady, David. "Child Labor." The World Book Encyclopedia. 1995 ed.

David Brady wrote this selection for The World Book Encyclopedia. It is about the history of child labor. I chose this article because it gave me some background information about child labor: By 1890, nearly 20% of U.S. children were employed full-time (455).

Cleland, Hugh G. "Child Labor." Encyclopedia Americana. 1994 ed.

Hugh Cleland wrote this article for the Encyclopedia Americana. It is about the history of child labor. I chose this source because it offered me some background information about child labor: Child labor is work performed by children that either endangers their health or safety, interferes with or prevents their education, or keeps them from play and other activity important to their development (460). This is the definition that the article gives of the term child labor.

Cleland, Hugh G. "Industrial Revolution." Encyclopedia Americana. 1994 ed.

Hugh Cleland authored this article ("Industrial Revolution") for the Encyclopedia Americana. It gives the history of the Industrial Revolution. I chose this article because it gave me some background information about the Industrial Revolution: For a time, the term "Second Industrial Revolution" was often used to describe the spread of the "first" Industrial Revolution from Britain to the European continent or from Europe to the rest of the world. At other times it has been used to describe new stages of development. . . (122). This passage clarifies to what the term "Second Industrial Revolution" refers.

Cochran, Thomas C., and William Miller. The Age of Enterprise: A Social History of Industrial America. New York, NY: The Macmillan Company, 1942.

One selection of particular interest to the topic in this book concentrates less on the poor working and living conditions and focuses more on the overcrowded tenements and the long hours of work. Girls from New England are the workers discussed here, and they stood up for their rights when perhaps no one expected them to. Once incident is told of when they went on strike to protest a 15% pay cut. Many of the early strikes were rather unsuccessful, but the girls were persistent, as well they should be. Many girls, when they could work no more, simply died.

Diamond, Herbert Maynard. "Child Labor." Dictionary of American History. 1976 ed.

Herbert Maynard Diamond wrote "Child Labor" for the Dictionary of American History. It is about the history of child labor in the U.S. I chose this source because it has a lot of background information: From 1870 to 1910 the number of children reported as gainfully employed steadily increased as did also their percentage of the total number of children in the population (361). This passage tells one of the many statistics available about child labor during the Industrial Revolution.

Degler, Carl N. The Age of the Economic Revolution: 1876-1900. Ed. David M. Potter, Carl N. Degler. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman and Co.

This selection discusses the varied hours and wages earned by immigrants in the United States during the Industrial Revolution. It talks about different jobs and various other elements that made work very difficult for the immigrant. However, this piece is not so bleak as others. It shows a brighter, more positive side and discusses the improvements made upon the situation over the years.

"Evidence Given Before the Sadler Committee." Parliamentary Papers. (1831-1832, vol. XV. pp. 44, 95-97, 115, 195, 197, 339, 341-342.) The Life of the Industrial Worker in Nineteenth-Century England. 1.html.

This is a segment that takes a firsthand look at the brutal hours and harsh treatment of child labor in the Industrial Age. It does so by actually recording interviews with a number of former child laborers. The recording goes into detail as the workers recount the physical abuse that they suffered at the hands of their "overseers." This is an unblinking look at the situation.

Garraty, John A. From Labor and Capital in the Gilded Age: Testimony Before the Senate Committee on the Relations Between Capital and Labor. In Negotiating Difference. Eds. Patricia Bizzell and Bruce Herzberg. Boston: Bedford, 1996. 554-575.

John A. Garraty compiled excerpts from the Senate Committee hearings Labor and Capital in the Gilded Age. These excerpts deal with the problems that occurred during the Industrial Revolution: An attic room here, lighted byone small window, is occupied by 4 men and 4 women, almost certainly not married, at a monthly rent of four dollars. In another room 3 men and 4 women live--all rag pickers. Here was a young girl, who was represented as "stopping for a few days." She looked as if she might be saved, for she was obviously ashamed of herself and her friends. In this entire tenement were 182 persons; of these 122 were men, 37 women, and 23 children (570). This passage deals with the overcrowding of the tenement buildings.

Hays, Samuel P. The Response to Industrialism: 1885-1914. Ed. Daniel J. Boorstin. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1957.

This work focuses on the immigrant's adjustment to life in the New Country. Of course, where they lived and how they worked was a big part of that adjustment. This piece discusses the disgusting living conditions in particular, but it also covers other elements that greatly affected immigrant life in America in this time period.

Kadushin, Alfred. "Child Welfare." Collier's Encyclopedia. 1989 ed.

Kadushin authored this article in Collier's Encyclopedia. It is about the history of the welfare of children. I chose this source because it contained a few facts that I hadn't already known: In the 1890's growing concern in the United States with the needs of children and the dangers to them of industrial exploitation led to the passage of the first law restricting child employment (247). This passage is about the passage of the first child labor laws by Congress and by individual states.

Lippencott, Isaac. "The Industrial Revolution." Dictionary of American History. 1976 ed.

Lippencott wrote this article about the Industrial Revolution. I chose it because of its background information on the Industrial Revolution: The so-called industrial revolution was in fact a series of revolutions each with a phase peculiar to itself, each in turn unsettling established industrial and social relations, and each making necessary industrial readjustments of great magnitude (117). This passage tells how the Industrial Revolution was actually a series of mini-revolutions.

Montgomery, David. "Labor in the Industrial Era." A History of the American Worker. Ed. Richard B. Morris. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1983. 79-113.

Montgomery, a history professor at the University of Pittsburgh, wrote about American labor during the Industrial Era. Included in this essay are sections on unionism, social class, women in the work place, living conditions, and cooperatives. I chose this essay because of its discussion of living conditions: These sons and daughters of early industrial America grew up in a world which, as Uriah Stephens had said, was an artificial and man-created condition.' The landmarks of their youth were not hills, springs, and oak groves, but taverns, meeting halls, market buildings and roundhouses. Most workers lived close by countless chimneys which belched black smoke into the air. Their children swam in polluted rivers and ponds (84). Montgomery wrote of the terrible living conditions in which the "working class" resided.

Montgomery, Royal E. "Child Labor Amendment." Dictionary of American History. 1976 ed.

Royal Montgomery wrote about the Child Labor Amendment that Congress passed but states have not ratified. I chose this passage because it deals with one of the attempts to regulate child labor: The apparent impossibilty of circumventing judicial hindrances to Federal legislation brought about the submission of a Constitutional amendment which would give Congress power " to limit, regulate and prohibit the labor of persons under 18 years of age" (362). This passage tells about the attempted passage by Congress of the Child Labor Amendment.

Peck, Ira. "Labor in America." (6 Dec. 1996).

Ira Peck wrote this article which was placed on the Internet about the history of labor in America. It includes a section on the cotton factories in Lowell, Massachusetts, as well as others on other aspects of the history of labor in America. This particular section is partially about the wages of the "girls" who worked in the Lowell mill: The factory owners at Lowell believed that machines would bring progress as well as profit. Workers and capitalists would both benefit from the wealth created by mass production. For a while, the factory system at Lowell worked very well. The population of the town grew from 200 in 1820 to 30,000 in 1845. But conditions in Lowell's factories had already started to change. Faced with growing competition, factory owners began to decrease wages in order to lower the cost--and the price--of finished products.

This shows that although the Lowell idea was a good one to begin with, it did not last. The "girls" of the Lowell mills had to suffer wage cuts due to the competition.

"Library of Congress Classes for Industrial Relations." Library of Congress Call Numbers for Industrial Relations, Numerical Order. (6 Dec. 1996).

This source is basically a list of the various call numbers for industrial relations. It includes the call numbers for: "Woman labor", "Child labor", "History of labor, United States", etc. These call numbers might be useful if someone was researching the various aspects of labor. [There is no quote since all this source is is a list of call numbers.]

Phelps, Elizabeth Stuart. From The Silent Partner. In Negotiating Difference. Eds. Patricia Bizzell and Bruce Herzberg. Boston: Bedford, 1996. 530-551.

Elizabeth Stuart Phelps wrote The Silent Partner about women's status in society during the Industrial Revolution. It is one of a number of novels about the societal status of women. This book is about Perley Kelso and her discovery of the living and working conditions of the women in the family's mill and her efforts to change those conditions. There are many passages about the working conditions in the mill. I chose this selection because of its description of the working conditions: The engines respire into the weaving room; with every throb of their huge lungs you swallow their breath. The weaving room stifles with steam. The windowsills of this room are guttered to prevent the condensed steam from running in streams along the floor; sometimes they overflow, and water stands under the looms; the walls perspire profusely; on a damp day, drops will fall from the roof (532). This is a description of the weaving rooms of the fictional "Hayle and Kelso Mills."

"Robert S. Howard." Testimony Before the Senate Committee On the Relations Between Capital and Labor(1883). Negotiating Difference: Cultural Case Studies for Composition. (pp. 584-588). Boston: Bedford Books. 1996.

Robert S. Howard was a textile mill worker in Fall River, Mass. He knew first hand of the troubles of the workers. He rightly asserts that the slavishly long hours and low wages drive workers to drink. He even cites an actual instance. He also expresses his disdain for company detectives spying on the workers who go to list their grievances to the legislative body. These detectives then report to the employers who respond by blacklisting the workers who go to the legislative body. All of these things must be brought to a screeching halt.

"Samuel Gompers." Testimony Before the Senate Committee on the Relations Between Capital and Labor(1883). Negotiating Difference: Cultural Case Studies for Composition. (pp. 553-561). Boston: Bedford Books. 1996.

The Senate Committee On the Relations Between Capital and Labor is recorded here in a session with a witness that has investigated the problems of the working class. The witness rightly affirms that workers are treated unfairly by being forced to work long hours for scant pay. They are also forced to live in the squalor of tenements, which become breeding grounds for disease and ailments of all kinds.

Schlesinger, Arthur Meier. The Rise of the City: 1878-1898. Ed. Arthur M. Schlesinger, Dixon Ryan Fox. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1933.

Here, again, we find emphasized the squalor in which immigrants to this country were forced to live. This selection discusses the "dumb-bell"tenement and the problems that it fostered. The nasty conditions are discussed as well as the hazards of such things as fire.

Shahrokhi, Laila. (1996). "History of Child Labor." Internet.

This source defines child labor and recounts major events in its history. It describes the child labor rise in England during the Industrial Revolution. The harsh working hours, the cruel treatment of the children, and the debilitating elements that worked to deteriorate the health of the children are all discussed here. Early attempts, as well as failed ones, to stop it are also listed here. This is a short, concise commentary on a horrible thing.

Stansell, Christine. "The Origins of the Sweatshop: Women and Early Industrialization in New York City." Working-Class America. Eds. Michael H. Frisch and Daniel J. Walkowitz. Urbana: U of Illinois P, 1983. 78-97.

Christine Stansell wrote an essay that is in the book Working-Class America. It deals with the history of the sweatshop in New York City. I chose this essay because it talks about the wages and working conditions that were not very good:

Thirty years later, exploitation had become more deeply entrenched; indeed, the ladies of one women's charity declared with uncharacteristic vehemence that the outworker's wage "does not decently support life" (78).

This quote is about the wages that the outworkers received and that these wages were not enough to live on.

Watkins wrote about various child labor cases in which the Supreme Court had ruled against laws that would regulate child labor. I chose this document because it gave me some history about child labor:

Upholding the decision of the Western District Court of North Carolina (1917), the United States Supreme Court in June 3, 1918, declared the law unconstitutional as an invalid use of the commerce power of the Federal Congress to infringe freedom of contract and prevent child labor within the respective states [Hammer v. Dagenhart] (362).

This passage details one of the several laws that would have regulated child labor that the Supreme Court deemed "unconstitutional."

The average annual earnings for women clerks during 1890, as obtained from the total for all industries, was $462, and for men $890. The women operatives received $276, as compared with $498 for men, the average for children in the same class being $141. The disproportion between the wages of the sexes is further emphasized by the fact that the men formed 82.53 per cent of the total operatives and received 90.32 per cent of the total wages of operatives, while the women formed 14.48 per cent of the number and received but 8.76 per cent of the wages. The proportion in the case of men exceeds the number by 7.79 per cent, and in the case of women falls short of the number by 5.72 per cent (210-211).

There was nothing at all adventurous or exciting in a dusty walk. My pack was taking on increments of weight with each mile of the journey. I was beginning to feel conscious of change in unexpected ways. There was no money in my pocket, and a most subtle and unmanning insecurity laid hold of me as a result of that. The world had curiously changed in its attitude, or rather I saw it at a new angle, and I felt the change most keenly in the bearing of people. My good-morning was not infrequently met by a vacant stare, and if I stopped to ask the way, the conviction was forced upon me that, as a back-peddler, I was a suspicious character, with no claim upon common consideration (5).

"Timothy D. Stow." Testimony Before the Senate Committee On the Relations Between Capital and Labor(1883). Negotiating Difference: Cultural Case Studies for Composition. (pp.567-573). Boston: Bedford Books. 1996.

Charles F. Wingate was a New York City sanitation engineer who testified before the committee. He matter-of-factly states the terrible conditions of the tenements of his city. He describes poor ventilation systems, filthy environments, and overcrowded living quarters. There was poor water provision, and what there was available was far from convenient with regard to accessibility. Wingate also strongly implies that the city board of health ignores the problem.

"Urban Labor and Revolutionary Politics." Encyclopedia of American Social History. 1993 ed.

This information basically outlines the labor structure in America leading up to all the conflict of the Industrial Age. More than discussing poor working conditions it focuses more closely on the growing unrest in labor. It speaks a bit about the terribly low wages that the hardworking people had to accept in order to go on living. This details how things go so bad for the laborers later.

"Workingmen's Party of Illinois, 'Declaration of Independence'" (1876). Testimony Before the Senate Committee On the Relations Between Capital and Labor(1883). Negotiating Difference: Cultural Case Studies for Composition. (pp. 597-601). Boston: Bedford Books. 1996.

This is a scathing document which is obviously equated with the Declaration of Independence of the United States. The purpose here is to point out the terrible flaws in Industrial Age American society for the purpose of indictment of the ruling class. The document makes known the unjust working conditions, and, more explicitly, the pathetic wages.

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